Dr. Marcos Britto da Silva - Ortopedia, Traumatologia e Medicina Esportiva: GLOSSARY OF ORTHOPAEDIC TERMS

GLOSSARY OF ORTHOPAEDIC TERMS

Acetabulum: the part of the pelvis connecting with the femur (thighbone) to form the hip joint
Addiction services clinician: a clinical professional — usually a nurse or counselor — with specialized training in the field of alcohol and drug dependence 
Angiogram: a set of x-ray-like pictures that are taken to diagnose injuries to arteries and veins 
Anesthesiologist: a physician who has special training in the branch of medicine that deals with anesthesia; he/she is the person who puts you to sleep prior to surgery 
Anticoagulant: a medication that prevents or restricts the clotting of blood 
Attending Orthopaedic surgeon: the Orthopaedic doctor who directs your care and assumes ultimate responsibility for all treatments and plans of care (often referred to as the “attending”) 
Bones: the hard, connective tissue that forms the body’s skeleton; function as a struc- tural support 
Brace: a device — sometimes jointed — to support and hold any part of the body in the correct position to allow healing.
Calcaneus: the heel
Cane: a sturdy wooden or metal staff or walking stick used to give support and mobility to a partially disabled person. 
Care coordinator: a registered nurse who helps you and your family make plans for further care and treatment once you leave the hospital (i.e., in a rehabilitation hospi- tal or home environment) 
Cast: hard plaster or fiberglass device placed on the outside of the fracture site that keeps the bones from moving 
Cast boot: a large open shoe with Velcro that fits over your cast and allows you to put weight on the leg without damaging the cast 
Clavicle: the collarbone; the bone that connects the shoulder to the chest wall 
Clinical nurse specialist: a nurse who has special knowledge and experience in a clini- cal area (in your case, Orthopaedics); this nurse gives advice to the nursing staff and health care team members on caring for a patient and is available to answer your questions about your injuries 
Comminuted fracture: an injury where the bone is broken in many places 
Compartment syndrome: a condition caused by the progression of pressure on the blood vessels of an extremity from swelling in the surrounding tissue. This results in reduced blood supply to an extremity, severe pain and limited movement. Treatment includes removal of restrictive dressings or casts or possibly surgery to release the pressure in the tissue. 
Compound fracture: an open fracture; an injury where the broken bone sticks through the skin 
Crutch: a wooden or metal staff, the most common kind of which reaches from the ground to the arm pit, used to aid a person in walking 
CT scan: specialized x-ray studies that can find and/or provide more detailed pictures about a patient’s injury 
Dislocation: an injury where a bone is displaced from the joint socket
Emergency department: the place where you are taken to receive your initial/life-saving hospital care; commonly referred to as the “ER” or “ED” 
External fixator: a metal device visible on the outside of the body that treats frac- tures by stabilizing the involved bones 
Extubation: (see intubation) the process of removing a breathing tube from your throat; extubation takes place once intubated patients become able to breathe on their own
Fasciotomy: a surgical procedure where the connective tissues are cut open — or “released” — to relieve the pressure caused by reduced blood flow to the muscle compartments surrounding the fractured bone (see compartment syndrome) 
Femur: the longest bone in both the leg and the body; known commonly as the thighbone 
Fibula: the smaller of the two bones in the lower leg/shin area 
Fracture: a broken bone 
Glenoid: the “socket” portion of the shoulder; is also a part of the scapula 
Greenstick fracture: a fracture where the bone is not completely broken. Appearing most frequently in children, the bone does not break, but bends like a “green stick.” 
Health care proxy: the person you name to make medical decisions for you during times when you are not able to make them for yourself 
Home health care: a team of nurses and/or therapists who go to your home to help you with your therapy and recovery process; they will teach your family how to care for you at home 
Humerus: the bone of the upper arm
Infection: the invasion of the body by micro-organisms that reproduce and multiply,  causing disease through local cell injury and the release of toxins 
Inpatient unit nurse: a registered nurse stationed on a patient care unit who works with you and your family to coordinate day to day activities while in the hospital 
Intensive care unit (ICU): an inpatient nursing unit where patients go to recover when they are seriously ill or injured, or when they require very close medical and nursing observation following major surgery 
Intravenous (IV): the process during which fluid or medicine is passed by a tube into a vein — usually in the arm 
Intubation: the process during which a tube is placed in your throat to help you breathe. Sometimes this tube is attached to a machine called a ventilator that helps you breathe. 
Joint: a point of connection between two or more bones
Ligament: a stabilizing cord, band or sheet of soft tissue that links two or more bones or pieces of cartilage together 
Mechanism of injury: the way in which a traumatic injury happens; for example, a fall, motor vehicle crash or direct blow
MRI: a technique that uses magnetic fields to produce pictures of the body that show great detail about the part of the body being examined 
Muscle flap: a surgical procedure where muscle is transferred from an uninjured part of the body to the injured area/part of the body so that healing may take place 
NPO: NOT PRIOR OPERATION usually used on night prior or morning of surgery when a patient is not allowed to eat or drink anything in order to keep the stomach empty for surgery. “You’re NPO,” means that you should not eat or drink anything until notified otherwise. 
Nutrition: the food and drink needed to help the body heal while in the hospital Nutritionist: a professional with specific clinical training who addresses issues pertaining to a patient’s diet and nutritional status Oblique fracture: an angular break in the bone
Occupational therapist: A rehabilitation specialist trained to evaluate and treat restric- tions/ limitations in your ability to function independently in daily life roles. The occu- pational therapist provides treatment to address identified limitations or to teach other strategies to compensate for any loss of function. 
Olecranon: the bony tip of the elbow; the upper end of the ulna
Open reduction internal fixation: (ORIF); a surgical procedure used to fix a fracture, usually involving metal rods, plates or screws 
Operating room: a room in a hospital in which surgical procedures requiring anesthesia are performed 
Operation: a surgical procedure 
Orthopaedics: the medical specialty that includes the diagnosis, preservation and restoration of the form and function of limbs, spine and other muscle and bone struc- tures by medical, surgical, and physical methods 
PACU: the Post Anesthesia Care Unit; commonly referred to as the recovery room 
Pain service clinician: a physician or certified nurse anesthetist who has specialized training in the science of pain management; the team will consult this person when routine methods of pain control do not work as expected 
Patella: the kneecap
Pelvis: the bony, ring-shaped part of the body connecting on top with the spine and on the bottom with the femurs
Phases of care: the specific times for particular treatments you receive after your injury; these phases are emergency, surgery, intensive care, intermediate care and rehabilitation 
Physical therapist: a rehabilitation professional trained to examine and evaluate physi- cal impairments, functional limitations and disability. The physical therapist provides exercise therapy and functional training to help you achieve your best function. 
Pneumo boots: a tubular device that is placed around a patient’s leg and alternately inflated and deflated with air to maintain constant blood flow and good circulation in the extremities 
PCA: patient controlled analgesia; a system where the patient controls the delivery of pain medication into his/her body (usually by pressing a button connected to an IV) 
PO: may refer to food, drink and pills or other medications a patient must take by mouth 
Radiologist: a physician with special training in the branch of medicine that deals with the use of x-rays, radioactive substances and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease 
Radius: one of the two bones of the forearm located on the thumb side of the arm; it extends from the wrist to the elbow 
Reduction: the physical process of correcting or restoring bone fragments or joint dis- locations to their normal anatomical position 
Rehabilitation hospital: a hospital a patient may go to after BWH where you will receive intensive therapies (i.e. physical and occupational) for injuries 
Resident Orthopaedic surgeon: a doctor who has completed medical school and is now obtaining specialized training in Orthopaedics (often referred to as a “resident”) 
Rounds: the physician team’s early morning visits with and examinations of patients 
Scaphoid: one of the small bones in the wrist located near the base of the thumb 
Scapula: the broad bone on the back of the shoulder and upper back 
SICU: the Surgical Intensive Care Unit; an inpatient nursing unit where the seriously ill are treated after surgery 
Simple fracture: one break in the bone
Skin graft: repair of a wound site with skin from another part of the body or from a skin bank 
Sling: a bandage or device used to support an injured part of the body, most often the arm 
Sling and swathe: a sling with an additional strap that holds the arm tightly to the body 
SNF: skilled nursing facility; a hospital-like setting a patient may go to after discharge from hospital to continue recovery through appropriate therapies and nursing care
Soft tissue: skin, fat and muscle
Spine: the long bony column from the base of the head to the pelvis that protects the spinal cord
Spiral fracture: a long break in the shaft of the bone 
Splint: an Orthopaedic device for immobilization, restraint or support of any part of the body 
Sprain: a tension injury to a ligament that may cause swelling, pain, some loss of function or joint instability 
Surgery: the field of medicine dedicated to the treatment of disease or injury by operation; an operation 
TCU: transitional care unit; a unit or floor within a rehabilitation hospital to which a patient may go to after discharge from the hospital to continue recovery through appropri- ate therapies and nursing care 
Team: the patient, family and group of medical professionals who work together to diagnose, treat and rehabilitate patients with traumatic injuries 
Tibia: the larger of the two bones in the lower leg or shin area 
Traction: the process of putting a limb, bone, or group of muscles under tension by “pulling” by means of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize the part or to relieve pressure on it 
Transverse fracture: a type of fracture where the bone has been broken in half 
Trauma nurse coordinator: an expert nurse who specializes in trauma; he/she func- tions to coordinate the services involved in a patient’s care, and works closely with family and the staff 
Ulna: one of the two bones of the forearm extending from the wrist to the elbow; located on the pinky side of the arm 
Urinary catheter: a slender, soft plastic tube that is inserted into the bladder for tem- porary or permanent drainage of urine 
VNA: Visiting Nurses Association; a team of nurses and/or therapists who go to a patient’s home to help with therapy and the recovery process; they will teach family members how to care for the patient at home
Walker: a light, movable metal frame, about waist high, used to aid a patient in walking 
Weaning from the vent: when a patient practices breathing on his or her own versus breathing with the assistance of a breathing machine (vent)
Weight bearing status: a recommendation as to the amount of weight one can place on an injured leg when walking. Usually recommended as no weight, weight bearing as tolerated, partial weight or full weight bearing 
X-ray: an image taken by electromagnetic radiation that may be used to diagnose fractures 

Espero que você não precise porém caso sofra um acidente e seja internado fora do Brasil essa lista pode lhe ajudar a entender os termos médicos num centro de trauma.

Dr. Marcos Britto da Silva
Ortopedia, Traumatologia e Medicina do Esporte
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Atualizado em 11/04/2013

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